Wishlist of STILL MISSING SEEDS (updated with only 325 taxa missing of about 2,700!)
"TAXONOMY of the CACTACEAE"
The new classification of Cacti mainly based on molecular data and explained
by Joël Lodé
"Description of the Species"
±1500 pages / ±2500 photos /
180 genera / ±2700 species and subspecies
updated 28th of November 2021
FORECAST of contents:
- Approximately 2,700 listed taxa (sp. + subsp.) recognised, described and explained in alphabetical order,
- ± 1,500 pages A4 format (+ index of taxa treated),
- ± 500 photos of the new taxa and those omitted in the first two volumes, taken in habitat and in collection,
- + 2,500 photos of seeds of almost all species and subspecies, taken under a digital microscope,
- Complete description, updated for each species and subspecies, and moreover, why they were retained, synonymized or discarded.
- Etymology and eponymy for each species and subspecies,
- Portrait of persons who gave their name to a species or subspecies,
- + 1,200 geographical distribution maps, drastically reduced in number through between others, regroupments of subspecies.
- Description of habitats for each species and subspecies,
- Level of threat for each species and subspecies, presence in cultivation,
- Index and revised synonyms (in a separate booklet).
This is the
ambitious project that prefigures the sequel and the end of the first
two volumes of the "Taxonomy of the Cactaceae", which presented for the
first time in a single work, the genera of Cacti recognised by the
author and using both morphological data and molecular phylogenetic studies.
This time it is
an even more detailed and complementary huge research work, description of all taxa recognised by the author (± 2600) and
new data, like pictures under digital microscope of the seeds of almost all species and subspecies concerned.
The book is written in English (revised and corrected by specialists!), its translation into French will require
one more year of work, thus delaying a publication already planned in
the long term, considering the amount of work, knowing that the necessary
funds for the writing of this work, and its translation do not exist. This
work is based on the will and perseverance of the author (and the
patience of future readers!), It requires both financial and logistical
databases are already available at the bottom of this page: the list of
taxa seeds still to be found, as well as the photographs of the
taxa not previously included in the first two volumes. If you are a happy man and have seeds or photos wanted for this book, you are welcome to participate in the illustration! The
collaborators will of course be cited and thanked with their names in
the work, and the illustrations will be duly identified with the
copyright of their authors.
The drafting of the book
is a long-term task which demands an almost exclusive dedication,
which is not remunerated, and even generates expenses. The
financial assistance is therefore particularly welcome to carry out
this unpublished project which will spread over several years. I would like to thank the Société Française d'Acclimatation (Society
whose aim is to improve the diffusion of the knowledge of gardeners about
their climate and the plants of acclimatisation, to favor the diversity
of the plantations in gardens, in agreement with the climate)
which was the first to value this work and offered a grant for its implementation, also to Dr Alexander Bunkenburg, Alexander Pichler, Philippe Richaud, Frédéric Carlier, Brice Chéron and Peter Quirini for their financial support, as well as Christophe Ludwig for hosting all books data on server, and Jorge Quiñónez as informant.
There is nothing formal,
every help is greeted with kindness, and before being embodied in the
book with the thanks due to the generous collaborators, it will be
pointed out through this page which will honour each step forward towards the final publication of a work necessary to update our knowledge in the field of Cactaceae. In advance, thank you for your involvement.
you want to help this project to come true, you can also participate with
5, 10, 20 etc. or more Euros, just send the money to the account of
cactus-adventures.com on our Paypal account or secure server mentioning (Taxonomy of the Cactaceac Project vol.3-4"*. THANK YOU!
Started in 2016, the project is already well under way:
SEEDS under digital microscope:
- Seeds are like fingerprints for cacti; for now, I have currently taken 6,541 photos of the seeds under digital microscope, which represent about 2,470 taxa. Some come from different sources to verify and ensure their identity; most cacti seed sellers found on the web were solicited, some even offered the seeds, which represent a great help. Many
amateurs and specialists as well as botanical gardens and botanists have also participated in this compilation on a
voluntary and enthusiastic basis, and all will be thanked and cited in the book
- Thanks to many
collaborators who will be cited fo their merits in the book, the collection
of still missing photos in the first two volumes is well advanced, actually with more
than 500 photos of new taxa.
- More than 1,000 geographical distribution maps of all taxa (the subspecies would be
grouped together with the species on a single map in order to reduce their number) are at the project
stage, using the QGIS or DIVA-GIS software for their realization. I still have to find a standard model. For now, most information about this distribution is compiled. Help with the use of this software is welcome!
ETYMOLOGY / EPONYMY:
- I have also
prepared what will be used for the etymological illustration, the model
for the gallery showing the persons who gave their name to a species or a
subspecies. It is a very laborious and often
unsuccessful research work, many people have not been represented, and
there is no portrait or photo of these people known, or more simply I have
not managed to find their portrait : for example, the chevalier de Monville, Francisco Ortega respectively for genera Monvillea and Ortegocactus, Richard Grässner for Acanthocephala graessneri, José Picardo for Airampoa picardoi etc. There will be many anecdotes about the lives of these characters, many of which will surprise us.
DESCRIPTION of the SPECIES (and SUBSPECIES):
- The highlight of the
book, which will take the longest time, is the detailed description of ±
2,700 species and subspecies, with many gaps filled. I am currently working on Mammillaria "N" (vol.4). A long-term work on which I plan to offer a book as complete and updated as possible on Cacti.
Updated list of genera actually treated in Tax. of Cact. vols.3-4
publication of the first two volumes, the genera Copiapoa (Larridon et
al., 2016) and Astrophytum (Vázquez-Lobo et al., 2015) have been
studied; it is confirmed that Digitostigma caput-medusae is in Astrophytum and correct name is then Astrophytum caput-medusae.
Also analyzed: Cylindropuntia (Bárcenas 2015), Pilosocereus proparte (Calvente 2016), etc...
In 2002, Nyffeler had already shown that the genus Browningia is not monophyletic; the study by Ritz et al. (2016) confirmed what I had anticipated in TdC vol.1 p. 98: Azureocereus is located outside of Browningia.
- also confirmed, Lepidocoryphantha is excluded from the genus Coryphantha (Vázquez-Benítez et al., 2016). It was already done in Taxonomy of the Cactaceae, vol.2.
Most recent studies:
made monophyletic! A study by Breslin et al. is in the process of being
published in Taxon and shows Mammillaria sensu lato divided into three
large groups: Cochemiea sensu lato (including among others the Mammillarias of Baja California as already previously) anticipated, Coryphantha sensu lato (including Escobaria) and Mammillaria sensu lato (practically the not hooked ones).
September 2020: Lavor et al. carried out a molecular analysis for the genus Pilosocereus with about forty taxa.
June 2020: Barrios et al. have just published a molecular work on the genus Leptocereus, which shows that Dendrocereus is embedded within a monophyletic clade of Leptocereus.
October 2019: Sánchez et al. lead a third phylogenetic study on the genus Echinocereus, but this time, they give importance to the morphology and included it in their work.
A DNA study is also published on the genus Tephrocactus (M. Laura Las Peñas et al.).
2019: in September, a new phylogenetic work on Cylindropuntia still more complete was done by Majure et al.
Also in August, a complete molecular analysis was published on the genus Epithelantha (Aquino et al.).
2019: in August 2019, a new molecular study (Vázquez-Sánchez et al.) confirmed that Turbinicarpus should be splitted into three genera: Turbinicarpus sensu stricto, Rapicactus and Kadenicarpus, already suggested in Taxonomy of the Cactaceae second volume as the “clade B1”, but expecting more studies.
2018: the genus Echinocactus was finally studied with a deeper DNA analysis by Mario Daniel Vargas-Luna et al. and proved that Echinocactus should be splitted; in fact, Homalocephala is a good genus, including H. texensis, but also H. parryi and H. polycephala. Kroenleinia grusonii is sister to Ferocactus, although it is still unresolved (probably because of a reticular evolution event).
2018: the genus Eulychnia was the subject of a molecular phylogenetic study by Larridon et al.
Published in december 2017 by Tapia et al., a new molecular study on Cephalocereus was made and confirmed that Neobuxbaumia and Pseudomitrocereus (= Mitrocereus) are part of Cephalocereus and should be included in the latter.
This was already suggested in Taxonomy of the Cactaceae vol. 1 (p. 142: "All this seems to suggest that in the future, Cephalocereus (1838) could include the genus Neobuxbaumia
(1938), and the classification proposed here could be changed.") and
vol.2 (p. 67: "According to Arias et al. (2003), the DNA studies show
that the genus Neobuxbaumia is part of a clade including Cephalocereus and Pseudomitrocereus (= Mitrocereus). According to the same authors, it would therefore be possible to consider Pseudomitrocereus fulviceps, Cephalocereus and Neobuxbaumia
part of a single genus."), although waiting for more study, I preferred
not to change the taxonomy: now it's time for a global acceptation of
the genus Cephalocereus s.l.!
Nadja Korotkova et al. (2017) have also published a work on the Hylocereeae tribe at the
specific level using 4 different plastid regions to extract the DNA.
The results are as follows:
What does not change compared to Taxonomy of Cactaceae, vol.1 and 2:
- confirmed the grouping of Peniocereus pro parte in Acanthocereus.
- confirmed the genus Aporocactus, far removed from Disocactus.
What changes with respect to Taxonomy of Cactaceae vol.1-2:
- New genus Xiquexique confirmed by two DNA studies.
- Neobuxbaumia included now in Cephalocereus.
- Reinstatement of the genus Kadenicarpus.
- Reinstatement of the genus Homalocephala.
- Reinstatement of the genus Deamia for ex Strophocactus testudo and S. chontalensis.
What I said in volume 2 p.225 was therefore a good point: "Finally, the disjunction of species might suggest that we may be in the presence of more than one genus. "
- Strophocactus now includes: S. wittii, and more curiously, Pseudoacanthocereus brasiliensis, and P. sicariguensis.
I said p.149 about Pseudoacanthocereus: "It would be interesting, in my
opinion, to confirm their lineage with a molecular analysis. "
Deamia and Strophocactus are not part of the Hylocereeae tribe and are now included within Echinocereeae.
- The creation of a new genus, Kimnachia to house Pseudorhipsalis ramulosa.
What I said in the vol.1 of Tdc p. 152: "Pseudorhipsalis has to be included in Hylocereinae, although the boundaries of the tribe seem difficult to establish. "
Hylocereus is now included in Selenicereus, making it monophyletic. My suggestion is that perhaps Hylocereus could be considered as a subgenus?
What I said about Selenicereus in Td, vol.2 p. 202: "It is difficult to set the limits of Selenicereus"., And also: "The phylogenetic work of Barcenas et al. (2011)
confirmed that, as currently circumscribed (Anderson 2001 and Hunt et
al., 2006), the genus Selenicereus s.l. is not monophyletic in any tree.
For more details, read the article by Korotkova et al. A
phylogenetic framework for the Hylocereeae (Cactaceae) and implications
for the circumscription of the genera, Phytotaxa 327 (1): 001-046, 2017.
- I will try to take stock
with you by updating this page and this text from time to time according
to the progress of the project. Patience is a must!
is just incredible to see how people are contributing with
pictures, seeds, portraits, articles from all over the world: thank you for your help and trust.
I need your help to make this work the most accurate and as complete as possible: thank you for your contributions!
MISSING PICTURES Wishlist (updated with only 50 species missing)
Wishlist of MISSING PORTRAITS (updated, 181 people missing of about 900!)